STIs and STDs

Sexually transmitted infections are commonly referred to as STIs. The world is facing a large number of cases of STIs nowadays. It is becoming a threat by quickly spreading from one person to another. According to the reports, nearly one million people are affected by sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This shocking report has raised many questions in people’s minds. 

What are STIs? 

STIs mean Sexually Transmitted Infections. These infections or diseases spread or affect humans through sexual contact. In simple terms, microorganisms causing sexually transmitted infections or diseases spread to another person via sexual contact. These infections may affect the average human's healthy reproductive & sex organs and lead to many problems. 

Some commonly known STIs are Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, etc. In these cases, some diseases are found to be symptomatic too. STIs are not limited by age or gender if the person is sexually active. It spreads quickly from person to person if proper precautions are not taken during sexual contact. 

The reports say that people between the age of 15-49 are getting affected by STIs, and even pregnant women are getting affected with syphilis. Moreover, the rate of such types of infections is increasing yearly. The accumulation of these disorders or infections-causing viruses may lead to severe problems such as cancer, infertility, pregnancy complications, or even HIV.

Not only virus but also more than 30 different types of bacteria also enter the human body through sexual contact and affects their functioning. Sexually Transmitted Infections can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. 

Common Sexually Transmitted Infections:

Some of the STIs which are found through common symptoms are below:

  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Trichomoniasis

The above-listed four diseases are transmitted through sexual contact and can be medically treated and cured with proper medications and treatment.

However, some other incurable and viral infections related to STIs include the following:

  • Hepatitis B
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • HIV

In addition to the above-given list of diseases, some new diseases are also spread through sexual contact, including monkeypox, Ebola and Zika, Shigella sonnei, etc. However, these diseases are not referred to as STIs or STDs.

Consequences of STIs: 

Generally, STIs affect people's healthy sexual and reproductive life, leading to many problems and suffering. Moreover, it paves the way for forming of many cancers like cervical cancer in women, anal cancer, etc. 

Some of the impact and consequences, the STIs affected people face nowadays include the following:

  •  Sexually transmitted infections like Gonorrhoea, syphilis and herpes viruses may increase the risk of acquiring HIV infection in their body.
  • HPV, one of the STIs, can increase the risk of cervical cancer development in women.
  • Gonorrhea and syphilis cause pelvic region inflammation and lead to infertility in women.
  • Any STI significantly impacts the healthy reproductive life and other metabolism functioning in the body by giving rise to unhealthy problems.
  • The STIs transmitted from mother to child during birth may lead to consequences like neonatal birth, stillbirth, prematurity, low-weight birth, sepsis, neonatal conjunctivitis, and a child with some deformities.

How to Prevent STIs?

Condoms should be used correctly to prevent sexually transmitted infections during sexual contact. But condoms will not help one completely secure from these infections; it may sometimes lead to other infections like extra genital ulcers. Prior vaccination can be done using the vaccines found against two virally caused STIs such as hepatitis B and HPV.

Currently, science and technology have developed more rapidly. The medical sector is working hard to develop medications to cure people of such infections. In the year 2020, the medicine for HPV was found, and it is in the progress of screening for people in developed countries. And it is expected that medications will be found for incurable diseases like cancer by 2030. In addition, research is undertaken in several countries to develop vaccines against infections like HIV, Gonorrhea, etc. 

Diagnosis of STIs: 

STIs are sometimes symptomless. Even though it shows symptoms of the body, it is not specific to the particular diseases. For diagnosing STIs, urine, and blood tests in the laboratory are performed. Anatomical samples can also be taken to test for STIs. These tests can often give missed results or sometimes two or more STIs. 

In well-developed countries, for diagnosing STIs, they have high technical skills and instruments to check it in a smaller period. But developing countries have fewer facilities for diagnosis. The high-income countries are under research to go for easier and faster technologies to diagnose and cure these diseases. Molecular-level technologies are under development. 

In some cases, rapid and inexpensive tests for diagnosing STIs such as syphilis, HIV, and Gonorrhea are also available.  

Treatment of STIs:

STIs can be cured and treated. The treatment of STIs varies depending on the causal agent of the STIs. Some medicines which are followed are listed below: 

  • The bacterial-causing STIs can be treated with a single dose application of antibiotics
  • The causing viral STIs can be cured by giving antivirals which reduce the work and the effects of the virus to a less extent.


STIs are well-known to everyone nowadays. As a member of the present society, it is our responsibility to keep ourselves healthy. Therefore, everyone should be aware of avoiding unsafe sexual contact and breaking the chain of spreading these diseases. 

Book Appointment

Sign up for our newsletter

Tru Health Logo